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    Structure in Hindi

in Hindi - Structure



  • Structure ये एक अलग-अलग data types का collection होता है |
  • अगर structure का इस्तेमाल करना हो तो 'struct' keyword का इस्तेमाल करते है |
  • Structure ये array के जैसा ही होता है |
  • Array similar data types का collection होता है और Structure different data type का collection होता है |
  • Structure में किये हुए हर variable के decaration को 'member' कहते है |
  • Structure हर एक member के लिए अलग-अलग memory allocate करता है |

Syntax for Structure Definition

struct structure_name{  

    data_type member 1;  
    data_type member 2;  
    ------------------
    ------------------
    data_type memeber n;  
};  

Example for Structure Definition

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[30];
    float salary;
};

यहाँ पर example में structure का नाम 'Employee' लिया है और structure के तीन Members है जिनके अलग-अलग तीन data types है | एक 'emp_id' के लिए integer है, एक 'emp_name' के लिए character है, एक float है जो 'salary' के लिए है |

Structure Variable Declaration

Structure का variable declare करने के दो प्रकार है |
  1. जब Structure की definition लिखी जाती तब वहा पर भी Structure variable को लिखा जाता है |
  2. Structure के variable को main() function के अंदर भी किया जाता है |

Syntax for Structure Variable outside of Structure Definition

struct structure_name{  

    data_type member 1;  
    data_type member 2;  
    ------------------
    ------------------
    data_type memeber n;  
}structure_variable(s);  

Example for Structure Variable in main() Function

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[30];
    float salary;
}info;

Syntax for Structure Variable in main() Function

struct structure_name{  

    data_type member 1;  
    data_type member 2;  
    ------------------
    ------------------
    data_type memeber n;  
}structure_variable(s);
int main(){
	struct structure_name structure_variable_name;
}		

Example for Structure Variable in main() Function

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[30];
    float salary;
};
int main(){
	struct Employee info;
}	

Structure के Members या Elements को access कैसे किया जाता है ?

Syntax for Accesing Structure members
structure_variable_name . member_of_structure = value(optional);
Example for Accesing Structure members
info.emp_id = 10;

Structure Initilization

Structure Initialization के दो प्रकार है |

Type 1 :

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[30];
    float salary;
};
int main(){
	struct Employee info;
		
    info.emp_id = 34;
    strcpy( info.emp_name, "Raj Biradar");
    info.salary = 20000.00;
}

Type 2 :

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[30];
    float salary;
};
int main(){
	struct Employee info = {34, "Raj Biradar", 20000.00};
}	

Full Example for Structure

Source Code :
#include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

struct Employee {
    int  emp_id;
    char  emp_name[30];
    float  salary;
}info;

int main(){

info.emp_id = 34;
strcpy( info.emp_name, "Raj Biradar");
info.salary = 20000.50;

    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<info.emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<info.emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<info.salary<<endl;

return 0;
}
Output :
Employee id is : 34
Employee name is Raj Biradar
Employee salary is : 20000.5

Structure working with size(sizeof)

Structure के member अलग-अलग memory allocate करता है और पूरा Structure का size उनके members के जितनी होती है |

Source Code :
#include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

struct Employee {
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[20];
    float salary;
};
int main(){
	struct Employee info;

    cout<<"Size of Employee id is : "<<sizeof(info.emp_id)<<" bytes."<<endl;  // size of emp_id
    cout<<"Size of Employee name : "<<sizeof(info.emp_name)<<" bytes."<<endl; // size of emp_name
    cout<<"Size of Employee salary is : "<<sizeof(info.salary)<<" bytes."<<endl; // size of salary
    cout<<"Size of Employee structure : "<<sizeof(info)<<" bytes."<<endl; // size of Employee

return 0;
}

Ouutput :
Size of Employee id is : 4 bytes
Size of Employee name : 20 bytes
Size of Employee salary is : 4 bytes
Size of Employee structure : 28 bytes

Structure Memory Representation

Memory Representation में देखे तो System 32-bit होने के कारण integer का size '4 Bytes' होता है | character का size bracket में दिए हुए size जितना ही होता है और float का size 4 Bytes ही होता है | Structure का size दिए हुए सभी Members के size जितना होता है | for eg. 4 (int) + 20 (char) + 4 (float) = 28 Bytes होता है |


Structure using Pointer

Structure के Members को दो प्रकार से access किया जाता है |
  1. . (dot Operator)
  2. -> (pointer Operator)

Accessing Members using pointer Operator

Source Code :
#include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

struct Employee {
    int  emp_id;
    char  emp_name[30];
    float  salary;
};
int main(){
	struct Employee info;
	struct Employee *ptr;

	ptr = &info;

    ptr->emp_id = 34;
    strcpy( ptr->emp_name, "Raj Biradar");
    ptr->salary = 20000.00;

    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<ptr->emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<ptr->emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<ptr->salary<<endl;

return 0;
}

< /pre>
Output :
Employee id is : 34
Employee name is Raj Biradar
Employee salary is : 20000.000000

Array of Structure

Syntax for Array Structure Declaration
 struct structure_name structure_variable_name[array_size];

Example for Array Structure Declaration
 struct Employee info[3];

अगर एक से ज्यादा Employee की information store करनी हो तो array का इस्तेमाल करता है |

Example for Structure Without using Array

Source Code :
#include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[20];
    float salary;
};

int main(){
    struct Employee info1, info2, info3;

    info1.emp_id=34;
    strcpy(info1.emp_name, "Raj");
    info1.salary = 20000.00;

    info2.emp_id=35;
    strcpy(info2.emp_name, "Maruti");
    info2.salary = 30000.00;

    info3.emp_id=36;
    strcpy(info3.emp_name, "Suraj");
    info3.salary = 40000.00;

    cout<<"Student 1"<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<info1.emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<info1.emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<info1.salary<<endl<<endl;

    cout<<"Student 2"<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<info2.emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<info2.emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<info2.salary<<endl<<endl;

    cout<<"Student 3"<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<info3.emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<info3.emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<info3.salary<<endl;

return 0;
}
Output :
Student 1
Employee id is : 34
Employee name is Raj
Employee salary is : 20000.000000

Student 2
Employee id is : 35
Employee name is Maruti
Employee salary is : 30000.000000

Student 3
Employee id is : 36
Employee name is Suraj
Employee salary is : 40000.000000

Same Example for Structure using Array

#include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

struct Employee{
    int emp_id;
    char emp_name[20];
    float salary;
};
int main(){

    struct Employee info[3];
int i;

    info[0].emp_id=34;
    strcpy(info[0].emp_name, "Raj");
    info[0].salary = 20000.00;

    info[1].emp_id=35;
    strcpy(info[1].emp_name, "Maruti");
    info[1].salary = 30000.00;

    info[2].emp_id=36;
    strcpy(info[2].emp_name, "Suraj");
    info[2].salary = 40000.00;

for(i=0; i<3; i++){
    cout<<"Student "<<i+1<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee id is : "<<info[i].emp_id<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee name is : "<<info[i].emp_name<<endl;
    cout<<"Employee salary is : "<<info[i].salary<<endl<<endl;
}
return 0;
}
Output :
Student 1
Employee id is : 34
Employee name is Raj
Employee salary is : 20000.000000

Student 2
Employee id is : 35
Employee name is Maruti
Employee salary is : 30000.000000

Student 3
Employee id is : 36
Employee name is Suraj
Employee salary is : 40000.000000